3D Cytotoxicity Assays Using Immune Cells
In vitro assays can be used to test for the potency of a range of immune cells, including T and Natural Killer (NK) cells for immunotherapies. Many of these assays are conducted using traditional culturing methods, where cells are plated in microplate wells. New methods and technologies have been developed over the last decade to culture cells in three dimensions (3D) to better mimic in vivo conditions. These include hydrogel-based methods and the use of ultralow absorbent (ULA) coatings in microplate wells to allow cells to self-aggregate into spheroids. Microscopy is adept at probing these 3D technologies, particularly with the use of spheroids where magnification is required to obtain quantitative data from the biology.
Figure 1. Quantitative microscopy of NK cell-mediated apoptosis and necrosis occurring in a tumoroid within a collagen-based hydrogel.
The Agilent BioTek Cytation cell imaging multimode reader, in conjunction with Agilent BioTek BioSpa 8 automated incubator is well suited to the long-term kinetic cytotoxicity assays using 3D technologies and immune cells. The following application notes depict the use of NK cell- and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays conducted using a 3D collagen-based hydrogel and spheroids, respectively.
- Validation of an Image-Based 3D Natural Killer Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity Assay
- An Image-Based Method to Detect and Quantify T Cell Mediated Cytotoxicity of 2D and 3D Target Cell Models
- Automated Media Exchange for Spheroid Cultures Using a Novel MultiFlo FX Accessory